Dimethyl fumarate (Tecfidera)
Dimethyl fumarate is a disease modifying therapy (DMT) for relapsing MS. Its brand name is Tecfidera and you take it as a tablet.
- Who can take dimethyl fumarate?
- How does dimethyl fumarate work?
- How well does dimethyl fumarate work?
- What are the side effects of dimethyl fumarate?
This disease modifying therapy is recommended for people with ‘active’ relapsing MS. Dimethyl fumarate won’t work if you don’t get relapses, so you won’t be offered it if you have primary or secondary progressive MS.
Whether you’ll be offered this drug for relapsing MS depends on if you qualify for it based on guidelines used by your neurologist. These guidelines come from the Association of British Neurologists (ABN) and NICE.
In Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland you can have dimethyl fumarate if:
- you have relapsing MS and you’ve had a recent relapse and/or MRI scans show new signs that your MS is active (you have new lesions)
In England you can have this drug if:
- you’ve had two relapses in the last two years
Dimethyl fumerate, known by the brand name Tecfidera, is a disease modifying therapy (DMT) recommended for the treatment of ‘active’ relapsing multiple sclerosis. This is defined in guidelines as two or more relapses in the last two years.
Originally a drug for treating psoriosis, a trial in 2012 found that it could be an effective treatment for MS.
We don't know exactly how it works, but it dampens down inflammation. This may be helpful in reducing the inflammation that causes damage in the brain and spinal cord of people with MS. In 2014 the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) gave the go ahead for the drug to be used on the NHS.
Dimethyl fumarate is a tablet you take twice a day. Taking it with food may help reduce some of its side effects.
MS drugs can be put into three groups based on how well they control it. The effectiveness of dimethyl fumarate is classed as 'good'. This puts it between DMTs classed as 'high' effectiveness and those classed as 'moderate'. This is based on how much it reduces relapses and slows down how fast people's disability gets worse.
Relapses dropped by: 53%
This means that in one trial, on average, people saw a 53% drop in the number of relapses they had. This was compared to people who took a placebo, a dummy treatment with no drug in it.
Disability getting worse was slowed down by: 38%
This means that in one trial, on average, people saw a 38% drop in the risk of their disability getting worse. This was compared to people who took a placebo.
Up to 40% of people have one or more of these:
- flushing (going red in the face)
- feeling hot
- upset stomach
- feeling sick.
You will also have to have blood tests before and during treatment as it may affect your kidneys and liver and your white blood cell count.
PML: a very rare side effect
Dimethyl fumarate can increase your chances of getting a rare viral brain infection called PML (progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy). The risk is extremely small but PML can kill or leave a person seriously disabled. As of the end of 2017 only five cases have been seen in over 230,000 people across the world taking dimethyl fumarate.
There's a virus that makes your risk of getting PML higher. Your specialist can tell from a blood test if you have it. If you do, your MS team will talk to you about PML and what you can do about it.