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MS and the COVID-19 vaccines

Can I get a COVID-19 vaccine? Are the coronavirus vaccines made by Pfizer-BioNTech, Oxford-AstraZeneca or Moderna ‘live’ vaccines?  

We’ve spoken to leading healthcare professionals to help answer your questions about COVID-19 vaccines and MS.

Your own MS team can give you more advice based on your circumstances, treatments, and whether getting a COVID-19 vaccine is right for you.

Our medical advisers have published a consensus statement about COVID-19 vaccines and disease modifying therapies (DMTs) updated on 12 March.

We updated this page on Friday 18 June with information on when people in England can get the vaccine

  1. When can I get a COVID-19 vaccine?
  2. Can I have a COVID-19 vaccine if I'm having an MS relapse or take steroids?
  3. Will a COVID-19 vaccine interfere with my other medications?
  4. Do I need to prepare anything before my COVID-19 vaccination?
  5. What about COVID-19 vaccine side effects?
  6. Are the Pfizer-BioNTech and Oxford-AstraZeneca coronavirus vaccines ‘live’ vaccines?
  7. Which COVID-19 vaccine is best for someone with MS?
  8. Will my partner or carer be eligible for a COVID-19 vaccine?
  9. Can I get the COVID-19 vaccine if I’m pregnant?
  10. Why are there different COVID-19 vaccines being developed?
  11. How do the COVID-19 vaccines work?
  12. Do any of the COVID-19 vaccines contain egg or animal products?
  13. Have the COVID-19 vaccines been tested in people with MS?
  14. How do we know that the COVID-19 vaccine will be safe and effective for people with MS?
  15. Will the vaccine be available on the NHS, or can I pay for a COVID-19 vaccine?
  16. Will health and social care professionals be given the COVID-19 vaccine?

1. When can I get a COVID-19 vaccine?

The COVID-19 vaccine was first available to groups of people on the UK government’s priority list. That included everyone with MS. It is now also being rolled out to other people, and you or your family might be able to book appointments online. The speed of rollout varies across the UK.

If you've got MS, you'll probably be contacted by the NHS to arrange your vaccine - by phone, text or letter. They might contact you by phone and by letter. A genuine contact from the NHS won’t ask for payment or for you to send personal documents to prove your identity.

Vaccines in England

In England, if you’re registered with a GP and you have MS you can book online with the NHS or call 119. From 18 June, people aged 18 and up can book a COVID-19 vaccine.

To book, and for a full list of who can get the vaccine now, visit the NHS website.

Vaccines in Scotland

In Scotland, if you’ve got MS you should already have been invited for the vaccine. If you haven't, you can visit the NHS Inform website for advice on who to contact in your area.

For a full list of who can get the vaccine now, visit NHS Inform website.

Vaccines in Wales

In Wales, some NHS local health boards are asking people in the top priority groups to get in touch if they haven’t been invited for the vaccine yet. For some areas this includes people with MS in priority group 6. Find your local NHS health board.

For a full list of who can get the vaccine now, visit the Welsh government website.

Vaccines in Northern Ireland

In Northern Ireland, anyone 16 or 17 with a shielding letter, or anyone 18 or older can book online. Find out more and book on the Health and Social Care Northern Ireland website.

Vaccines for friends, family and carers

Do you provide care and support for a family member or friend with MS? Read more about getting the COVID-19 vaccine

Vaccine priority groups

There’s been a UK-wide plan to prioritise certain groups to be vaccinated first.

  • Group 1: Residents in a care home for older adults and their carers
  • Group 2: People 80 years of age and over and frontline health and social care workers 
  • Group 3: People 75 years of age and over 
  • Group 4: People 70 years of age and over and ‘clinically extremely vulnerable' people
  • Group 5: People 65 years of age and over 
  • Group 6: Everyone aged 16 to 64 with underlying health conditions which put them at higher risk of serious disease and mortality and unpaid carers (friends or family). Group 6 includes everyone with MS who’s not already in groups 1-5.  In England and Wales, it also includes people who live with someone with MS taking certain DMTs.
  • Group 7: People 60 years of age and over
  •  Group 8: People 55 years of age and over
  •  Group 9: People 50 years of age and over 

But there might be exceptions to this, based on advice from your MS team. They could say a vaccine isn’t right for you at this time.

Read our medical advisers' statement on vaccines and DMTs 

2. Can I have a COVID-19 vaccine if I'm having an MS relapse or take steroids?

Our medical advisers recommend  not having the vaccination while you're having a relapse. 

They also advise waiting 2 weeks after completing a course of steroids to treat a relapse, before being vaccinated.  

3. Will a COVID-19 vaccine interfere with my other medications?

Our medical advisers say you should wait 2 weeks after completing a course of steroids to treat a relapse, before being vaccinated. 

Our medical advisers don’t think the COVID-19 vaccine will stop DMTs from working. They say this because of what we know about the way these vaccines work, and evidence from studies of other vaccines and MS. At the moment, we’re not sure if a COVID-19 vaccine will interfere with any other medications you might be taking.

No one should stop their MS therapy unless specifically requested to do so by their MS team. 

Read our medical advisers' consensus statement

Your MS team can answer specific questions about your own circumstances. 

4. Do I need to prepare anything before my COVID-19 vaccination?

You'll need to bring a face covering, unless you don’t wear one because of your MS or another condition. And if your appointment is at a vaccination centre you’ll need your booking reference numbers. 

You can have someone with you as a carer if you usually would. 

When you go for your vaccination, you’ll be asked to read the patient safety leaflet. This is normal for any kind of vaccination.

Read the Astra Zeneca vaccine patient safety leaflet

Read the Pfizer vaccine patient safety leaflet

With some DMTs – though not all – your MS team might have specific advice about the timing of the vaccine. That’s to make the vaccine as effective as possible.

Read our medical advisers' statement about the vaccine and DMTs 
 

5. What about COVID-19 vaccine side effects? 

Some people report no side effects at all from the COVID-19 vaccines. 

When people do notice something, the most common reactions are headaches, arm pain, body aches, chills or fever lasting a few hours to a few days. Over-the-counter painkillers, like paracetamol, can help with this. 

Some of the possible side effects are similar to MS symptoms, including tiredness and muscle pain. A fever can make your MS symptoms worse temporarily, but they should return to how they were, after the fever is gone. But if you’re worried about any symptoms, you should contact your doctor or MS team as you usually would. 

We know about these possible side effects because thousands of people taking the vaccines were monitored during the clinical trials. And when people report new side effects to a doctor or nurse (or use the Yellow Card scheme) this is recorded and the information about the vaccine is updated. That way, there’s ongoing monitoring for side effects in the months and years after the vaccine is given. 

We also have information from the MS Register, where people with MS have answered questions about vaccine side effects they might have noticed. 

Read more about the MS Register survey of vaccine side effects

Because none of the licensed vaccines are ‘live vaccines’ it’s impossible to catch the coronavirus from the vaccine. 

Oxford-AstraZeneca for the under 40s 

On 7 April, the government vaccine advisers (the JCVI) announced new advice for people aged 18-30 who don’t have an underlying condition (such as MS). On 7 May this was extended to people up to the age of 39. This could include family, partners or carers of people with MS. 

If these people are going for their first jab, they should be offered an alternative to the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine, when possible. 

This is because of extremely rare side effects of blood clots. 

If you’re due for your second Oxford-AstraZeneca jab, the JCVI says you should still have it, even if you’re under 40 and have no underlying conditions. There have been very few cases of blood clots reported after the second jab. 

The chances of having a blood clot after the AstraZeneca vaccine are very small, and a link between the vaccine and the blood clots hasn’t been proven. But they’ve been reported in about 10 people in every 1 million who’ve had this vaccine. 

The JCVI has not given the new advice for people under 40 because they are likely to develop blood clots. They are taking a very cautious approach and weighing up the small risk of blood clots against the benefits of taking the vaccine.

For people with underlying conditions, they say the benefits of the vaccine outweigh the risk.

People under 40 without underlying conditions are less at risk from COVID-19 complications. So the JCVI has decided that at the moment they should be offered an alternative vaccine where possible. 

Read the 7 May announcement from the JCVI

Read more in the Association of British Neurologists (ABN) guidance on COVID-19 vaccines for people with neurological conditions 

6. Are the Pfizer-BioNTech and Oxford-AstraZeneca coronavirus vaccines ‘live’ vaccines?

The approved Pfizer-BioNTech and Oxford-AstraZeneca coronavirus vaccines are not ‘live’ vaccines. Neither is the third vaccine that’s approved, made by Moderna. 

A ‘live’ vaccine contains a weak version of the virus or bacteria they prevent. Many neurologists would suggest you avoid 'live' vaccines if you’ve recently taken certain DMTs or high-dose steroids. This is because although the virus or bacteria that the vaccine contains is weakened, there is still a small chance that it can cause disease in people with immune systems that have been weakened by DMTs.

The approved vaccines for COVID-19 work in a different way.

7. Which COVID-19 vaccine is best for someone with MS? 

It’s too soon to compare the 2 available COVID-19 vaccines and say if one might be better than the other for people with MS. 

But the research information we have already confirms that the best way to stay out of hospital with COVID-19 is to get either of the vaccines now on offer (made by Pfizer-BioNTech and Oxford-AstraZeneca). 

Read more in the Association of British Neurologists (ABN) guidance on COVID-19 vaccines for people with neurological conditions 

8. Will my family, partner or carer be eligible for a COVID-19 vaccine?

If you’ve got MS, some of those closest to you might also be in the priority list for the COVID-19 vaccine. And as the vaccine is rolled out further they can also get it when it's offered to everyone in their age group. 

The priority list includes:

  • anyone 16 or older who lives with you, if you take certain DMTs – this was recently added to the priority list for England, Wales and Scotland. We’ll update when we know about the Northern Ireland. 
  • partners and unpaid carers who provide care and support

People might also be on the priority list because of their own age, job or health condition. 

Anyone 16 or older who shares your home

Anyone 16 or older who shares your home on most days is now in priority group 6 in England and Wales, if you: 

  • have taken alemtuzumab (Lemtrada) within the last 4 weeks (or longer if specified by a clinician)
  • have had HSCT treatment in the last 12 months 
  • have taken cladribine (Mavenclad), ocrelizumab (Ocrevus) or alemtuzumab (Lemtrada) within the last 6 months AND have 2 or more other risk factors in this list 

GPs and neurologists will identify people who take a relevant treatment. They might also include people taking treatments not in our list.

In England, GPs will then send you a letter confirming your household is eligible. If you get that letter, people who live with you can book their vaccine through the GP practice.

When they go for the vaccination, they’ll need to have evidence they live at the same address as you (like a bank statement or a utility bill).

In Wales, people can register online for the vaccine

In Scotland, people who might be eligible can call the Vaccines Helpline on 0800 030 8013. They should follow the options for 'unpaid carers' and tell the person they speak to they're a 'household contact of someone who’s severely immunosuppressed'.

This group was added to the priority list because there’s evidence that the vaccines can reduce the chances of someone passing on the virus. So even if people have a reduced response to the vaccine themselves, there could be extra protection from vaccinating people in the same home. 

These DMTs might reduce a person’s response to the vaccine. But our medical advisers’ advice is that even if you get a reduced response to the vaccine, this is better than none. So they say it’s still worth getting vaccinated even if on these DMTs. And no one should stop their MS therapy unless specifically requested to do so by their MS team.

Partners and unpaid carers who provide care and support

If you’re the main carer for someone, you’re in group 6 on the list alongside people aged 16 to 64 who have underlying health conditions.

The 4 UK governments have slightly different ways to identify unpaid carers who are eligible for the vaccine. 

In England, you can book your vaccine online with the NHS or call 119 if:

  • you get Carer’s Allowance
  • or you get other support following an assessment by your local council
  • or your GP record shows you’re a carer
  • or you’re supported by a local carer support organisation 

If none of these apply, but you’re the main carer for someone, contact your GP. They might be able to update your record.

When you go for your vaccination, you might be asked to prove your identity, but you won’t be asked to prove you’re an unpaid carer, or that you receive Carer’s Allowance. 

You might be able to get the vaccine at the same time as the person you care for. If you’re registered at the same GP practice, let them know in advance of the appointment. If you’re eligible for the vaccine, they can add you to the record and you’ll get a letter from the NHS to take along to the appointment. This might depend on availability of vaccines on the day or staff capacity at the vaccination centre or GP surgery. 

In Scotland, from Monday 26 April, unpaid carers can register to get the vaccine by calling 0800 030 8013. You can use this service if you’re aged 16 to 64 and provide regular face-to-face care for a family member of friend who has MS (or another condition).

In Wales, if you’re the main unpaid carer for someone with MS, you could be eligible for the COVID-19 vaccine. The full eligibility guidance is explained on the Welsh government website

If you’re already registered as an unpaid carer with your GP, the practice will get in touch with you to invite you for the vaccination. 

If you’re not registered with your GP as a carer, you’ll need to fill in an online form for your local NHS health board – or the health board where your GP is based, if that’s different. Once you have completed the form, you’ll be invited for the vaccine.

Find your local NHS health board 
 

In Northern Ireland, if you're not contacted by your GP for the vaccine appointment, you can book it yourself like anyone over 18. Find out more on the nidirect website.  

9. Can I get the COVID-19 vaccine if I’m pregnant? 

The Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation has said that, when it comes to being pregnant, there are no specific safety worries about any of the types of coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccines. Their advice is that pregnant women should be offered the COVID-19 vaccine at the same time as the rest of the population. When they’re offered it will depend on how old they are and what, if any, clinical risk group they are in.

If you’re pregnant, the advice is you should be offered the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccines if these are available. That’s because 90,000 pregnant women in the US have had these two vaccines without any problems. There’s no evidence that other vaccines are unsafe for pregnant women, although more research is needed.

Women should talk to their doctor or nurse about the risks and benefits of vaccination. They’ll know the latest evidence on safety, which vaccines to have, and whether you’re in any special clinical risk group.

Read more on the UK government’s COVID-19 vaccine guidance for pregnant women

10. Why are different COVID-19 vaccines being developed?

Different COVID-19 vaccines are being developed to give us the best chance of finding effective ones. There are lots of ways to make a vaccine for a virus. What they all have in common is getting our immune system ready to fight off the virus. They make sure our system recognises the virus if it gets in.

Researchers from around the world are all working to develop vaccines for COVID-19. And at the start of the race to find it, no-one knew for sure what approach would work best.

There seem to be several different types that work well, and it could mean we have different vaccines for different groups of people. For example, older people’s immune systems might respond best to one, while teenagers find another more effective.

Having lots of different approaches also makes it more likely we’ll find better ways to store and deliver the vaccine. Some need super-cold storage, others can be kept in a household fridge for months on end. The first vaccines to report results – including the approved vaccines – need 2 jabs. It’s possible that others might need only one, or be given as a nasal spray.

11. How do the COVID-19 vaccines work?

The Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine is what’s known as a ‘messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine’. The Moderna vaccine also works in this way. The Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine has a different way of working - it’s known as a ‘viral vector vaccine’.   

Messenger RNA - using the genetic code

The messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines don’t contain any pieces of the actual coronavirus. Instead, they contain part of the genetic code of the virus, carried by the mRNA. These vaccines work by injecting this part of the coronavirus's genetic code, which trains the body’s immune system to attack coronavirus if it’s exposed to it.

You can read more about the way these 2 vaccines work on the Pfizer and Moderna websites - the drug companies which have developed them.

The Oxford vaccine – a ‘viral vector vaccine’

The other vaccine has been developed by the University of Oxford and drug company AstraZeneca. It’s known as a ‘viral vector vaccine’. It uses a weak version of the virus that causes the common cold in chimpanzees. This helps it get into the body like an actual virus would. But in the vaccine, this virus has had its genetic code changed so that it can’t actually cause disease in humans.

The change also means it’s got the genetic code for one particular part of the coronavirus - the ‘spike protein’. It’s just that, a spike on the outside of the virus that it uses to get inside our cells.

The vaccine makes the same spike so our immune system can recognise it if the actual coronavirus gets in - and then fight it off.

12. Do any of the available COVID-19 vaccines contain egg or animal products?

None of the 3 licensed COVID-19 vaccines contain egg or animal products.

The Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine was made using human kidney cells.

13. Have the COVID-19 vaccines been tested on people with MS?

We don’t know yet how many people with MS might have taken the COVID-19 vaccines during the clinical trials. That detail about who was on the trials hasn’t been published yet.

But we do know they looked at whether the vaccines worked on people with certain medical conditions and in older people. They did this because the immune responses for these people can work less effectively and therefore give them less protection through vaccines.

The 3 vaccines which have shared their initial results show the vaccine is between 70-95% effective in people involved in the trial as a whole.

Pfizer-BioNTech plan to check how effective the vaccine is for people with weakened ('compromised') immune systems - for example if you use certain DMTs. They’ll do this through a clinical trial and through their ongoing monitoring of people in the months and years after taking the vaccine.

One small study has looked at how effective the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine might be for people taking cladribine, fingolimod or ocrelizumab. Read about this Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine research

14. How do we know the COVID-19 vaccine will be safe and effective for people with MS?

All new medicines have to go through rigorous safety tests in clinical trials – including vaccines. This includes 3 stages of clinical trials where people who take the vaccine are very closely monitored. Researchers constantly check the safety and side effects through these trials.

Although the trials for the coronavirus vaccines have been accelerated, safety processes have still been carried out as normal.

The process can take up to a few months, but the process has so far been quicker for COVID-19 because the experts are prioritising and checking data as it’s produced - rather than waiting until after everything is completed as they usually would. So they can speed up the process while keeping it thorough.

Any COVID-19 vaccine is only approved once it meets these robust standards of effectiveness, safety and quality.

Association of British Neurologists

The Association of British Neurologists (ABN) say they don’t expect that COVID-19 vaccines will worsen someone’s MS – for example, by causing a relapse. And they have no reason to believe these will be dangerous in people with MS, including people taking immunosuppressive drugs.

We don't know for sure that the vaccines will work for everyone with MS. It’s possible that people on some MS treatments might have a reduced response to the vaccines.

This could happen because vaccines work by triggering an immune response and DMTs work by dampening down the immune system. This effect from the DMT might change over time. So you may have a reduced response for some time after an infusion, for example, but this might not be permanent.

Our medical advisers say that even a reduced response is likely to be better than none, so you should still get vaccinated if you’re on a DMT that might affect the vaccine like this.

Your own MS team can give you more advice, based on your circumstances, any treatments you take, and on whether getting a COVID-19 vaccine is right for you.

The UK government has said that adults who have a weakened immune system ('immunocompromised') should get a COVID-19 vaccine as a matter of priority. They say this includes people having stem cell transplants, and adults receiving alemtuzumab, ofatumumab or rituximab. This doesn’t guarantee the vaccine will be completely effective if you take these treatments, but you will get priority if you and your MS team agree it’s right for you.

One small study has looked at how effective the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine might be for people taking cladribine, fingolimod or ocrelizumab. Read about this Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine research

Now a vaccine has been approved, there will be lots more information coming out about possible side effects and anyone who should avoid or delay taking that particular vaccine. We’ll keep up to date with any changes.

Read our medical advisers’ statement on treatments and COVID-19 vaccines

15. Will the vaccine be available on the NHS, or can I pay for a COVID-19 vaccine?

The vaccines developed by Pfizer-BioNTech, Oxford-AstraZeneca and Moderna will be available on the NHS and free of charge to those who are eligible. At first, this will be for people on the priority list. So a vaccine might not be available to you on the NHS straight away.

We don’t know yet if other vaccines being developed will also be available on the NHS.

At some point, people might be able to buy the vaccine, but this isn’t certain to happen and you can't at the moment. 

To arrange your vaccine, the NHS will phone, text or write to you. They might contact you by phone and by letter. A genuine contact from the NHS won’t ask for payment or for you to send personal documents to prove your identity.

16. Will health and social care professionals be given the COVID-19 vaccine?

Many health and social care professionals will be given the COVID-19 vaccine.

Health and social care staff are at risk of contracting COVID-19, but also of passing it on to the people they care for. The UK government have made it clear that the NHS and social care system needs to be protected so services can continue as normal.

Care home staff and their residents are considered highest priority for vaccination, with health and social care workers following them.

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