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MS and the COVID-19 vaccines

Can I get a COVID-19 booster vaccine? Are the coronavirus vaccines made by Pfizer-BioNTech, Oxford-AstraZeneca or Moderna ‘live’ vaccines?  

We’ve spoken to leading healthcare professionals to help answer your questions about COVID-19 vaccines and MS.

Your own MS team can give you more advice based on your circumstances, treatments, and whether getting a COVID-19 vaccine is right for you.

We updated this page on Thursday 6 January 2022 with a booster jab update for anyone in England who's had a third primary dose, and on Wednesday 22 December 2021 with updates on COVID-19 booster jabs and vaccines for children and teenagers.

  1. When can I get a COVID-19 vaccine?
  2. Can I get a COVID-19 booster jab?

  3. Do I need a third COVID-19 jab because I’m immunosuppressed?
  4. Can children and teenagers get the COVID-19 vaccine?
  5. Can I have a COVID-19 vaccine if I'm having an MS relapse or take steroids?
  6. Will a COVID-19 vaccine interfere with my other medications?
  7. Do I need to prepare anything before my COVID-19 vaccination?
  8. What about COVID-19 vaccine side effects?
  9. Are the coronavirus vaccines ‘live’ vaccines?
  10. Which COVID-19 vaccine is best for someone with MS?
  11. Can I get the COVID-19 vaccine if I’m pregnant?
  12. Why are there different COVID-19 vaccines being developed?
  13. How do the COVID-19 vaccines work?
  14. Do any of the COVID-19 vaccines contain egg or animal products?
  15. Have the COVID-19 vaccines been tested in people with MS?
  16. How do we know that the COVID-19 vaccine will be safe and effective for people with MS?

1. When can I get a COVID-19 vaccine?

COVID-19 vaccines are available now across the UK. We’ve summarised how you and those close to you can get the jabs in each nation.

If you’ve already had your full vaccination (usually 2 jabs), you might be offered a booster jab to keep the protection strong.

Some people with MS are also being offered a third jab for a different reason. This is because they were taking certain disease modifying therapies (DMTs) when they had their first or second doses. Read more about who might be contacted by the NHS for this third jab

If the NHS gets in touch to arrange your vaccine it could be by phone, letter or both. A genuine contact from the NHS won’t ask for payment or for you to send personal documents to prove your identity.

If you use a disease modifying therapy (DMT), you might also want to read our medical advisers' statement on vaccines and DMTs

Omicron variant and COVID-19 vaccines 

At the announcement about the new Omicron variant, government medical advisers encouraged everyone to get vaccinated against COVID-19. They say that current vaccines could give some protection against Omicron, as well as the protection they offer already against other variants. 

There's still a lot we don't know about this new version of the virus, but we'll update with information when we have it. 

Vaccines in England

In England, if you’re 18 or over and registered with a GP you can book online with the NHS or call 119.

If you're 16 or 17 you can find your nearest walk-in vaccination centre one the NHS website. If you'll be 18 in 3 months or less, you can book a COVID-19 vaccine appointment on the NHS website.

Some children and teenagers can also get the vaccine

To book, and for a full list of who can get the vaccine now, visit the NHS website.

Vaccines in Scotland

In Scotland, if you’ve got MS you should already have been invited for the vaccine. If you haven't, you can visit the NHS Inform website for advice on who to contact in your area.

Anyone aged 16 or 17 living in mainland Scotland can book a vaccine appointment at NHS Inform. In Shetland, Orkney and Western Isles, the local health boards will get in touch. 

Some cildren and teenagers can also get the vaccine

For a full list of who can get the vaccine now, visit NHS Inform website.

Vaccines in Wales

In Wales, if you're 16 or older, you should have already been offered a COVID-19 vaccine. If you haven't, you can contact your local NHS health board.

Some children and teenagers can also get the vaccine

For a full list of who can get the vaccine now, visit the Welsh government website.

Vaccines in Northern Ireland

In Northern Ireland, anyone 16 or 17 with a shielding letter, or anyone 18 or older can book online. Find out more and book on the Health and Social Care Northern Ireland website.

Other 16 and 17-year-olds can now get the jab at a walk-in centre. Find your nearest vaccination walk-in centre

Some children and teenagers can also get the vaccine

2. Can I get a COVID-19 booster jab?

Across the UK, people with MS who’ve already been fully vaccinated will be offered a booster jab.

The NHS has been getting in touch to arrange it. You might be invited to have the annual flu jab at the same time.

Omicron variant and booster jabs

Because of the new Omicron variant of the virus, UK government advisers have sped up the booster programme. They have also confirmed that if you have a “third primary dose” of the vaccine you will be offered a booster jab.

Friends, family and colleagues

Friends, family and colleagues can also get a booster jab. It’s already offered to everyone over 18, and government vaccine advisers recommended it on 22 December 2021 for over-16s and some 12 to 15-year-olds.  

Why get a booster jab?

A booster could help keep up the protection that vaccines give against COVID-19, which decreases over time. That extra protection could be particularly important in the winter months.

Some people with MS are being offered a third dose of the COVID-19 vaccine because they were severely immunosuppressed when they had the first or second jab. This is not part of the booster jab scheme. Read more about the third dose vaccine if you were severely immunosuppressed

When will I get the booster jab?

Because of the Omicron variant, governments in England and Scotland are hoping to offer the booster to all eligible adults by the end of 2021. In Northern Ireland and Wales, rollout plans have also accelerated. 

Boosters will generally be offered in the same order as the UK government's original vaccine priority list. But local areas will have flexibility, to make sure people get the booster as quickly as possible. For example, that could depend on when someone had their second or third primary dose.

The government vaccine advisers recommend anyone over 16 can get their booster jab 3 months after their initial doses. That includes people who’ve had a “third primary dose”. They also recommend boosters for some 12 to 15-year-olds.  

The exact speed of the rollout will vary across the UK. 

Everywhere in the UK, if your MS means you can't get to a centre for your booster, your GP or local NHS should arrange it at home. 

Around the Christmas holiday we expect the four UK governments to accept the latest recommendations of the vaccine advisers. That will mean they’ll make plans for boosters for over-16s and some over-12s.

In England, over-16s who have MS and almost everyone who's over 30 can pre-book a booster jab online from as early as 2 months after the primary doses. Appointments will be for at least 3 months after the primary doses. 

From Wednesday 15 December, almost all over-18s can book online. In some areas, over-18s can already use a “walk-in” centre. 

If you've had a third primary dose you can't book a booster online, but your GP or neurologist will invite you when it's due (3 months after your third primary dose). If it's been 3 months since your third dose and you haven’t heard from your doctor, you can: 

  • contact them to discuss your booster


  • get a booster at a "walk-in" vaccination site. You can do this if you've got a letter from a GP or hospital consultant confirming you're eligible for the third primary dose. You'll need to take the letter with you and a qualified healthcare professional on site will make an assessment. But not every "walk-in" site can do boosters for people who are severely immunosuppressed. You can check if a site does on the NHS vaccination site finder 

If you're told you can't have the booster because the system says you've already had it, show them the letter about your third primary dose. On the records your third dose will have been called a 'booster', but you are eligible for what the system calls a 'second booster'. 

The NHS has asked all vaccination sites to be accessible with reasonable adjustments such as priority lanes for anyone who finds it hard to queue.

Find out how to get a COVID-19 booster in England

In Scotland, if you’ve already had your flu vaccine through the NHS, you should book your booster by calling 0800 030 8013 instead of booking online. Details to book for everyone else are online. 

Find out how to get a COVID-19 booster in Scotland

In Wales, the NHS will invite you when you’re eligible. So it's important  your contact details are up to date with your GP. 

Find out how to get a COVID-19 booster in Wales

In Northern Ireland, if you’ve got MS your GP should invite you for your booster. Anyone over 18 can now book online and use “walk-in” clinics. 

Find out how to get a COVID-19 booster in Northern Ireland

3. Do I need a third COVID-19 jab because I’m immunosuppressed?

The government vaccine advisers (the JCVI) recommend some people who have a weakened immune system get a third dose of a COVID-19 vaccine.

This third dose is not a booster jab, it's what's called a 'third primary dose'. But 3 months after you’ve had this third primary dose, you'll also be able to have a booster jab. This was confirmed by the UK government vaccine advisers on 29 November 2021. The NHS will contact you about having that.

Having MS itself doesn’t mean you’ll have a weakened immune system. But some treatments might have that effect, for varying lengths of time.

Everywhere in the UK, your GP, neurologist or NHS health board should let you know if you are eligible for this third dose of a COVID-19 vaccine. This is happening at different speeds in the 4 nations.

If you live in England, you can book your third dose online with the NHS if you've got a letter from your doctor inviting you to book.

Get in touch with your neurologist or GP if you think you're eligible but you haven't got an appointment yet. They can discuss whether you'd benefit from a third jab now, and if it needs to be planned around any treatments you take.

Who's eligible for the third COVID-19 jab?

The JCVI has recommended it for anyone 12 or over who had a ‘severely weakened immune system’ around the time of their other jabs. This is to try to increase your level of vaccine protection.

It’s likely to include you if you've:

  • had HSCT treatment in the last 2 years
  • recently been treated with ocrelizumab, rituximab, ofatumumab, fingolimod, or siponimod. This would usually be if you've had the treatment within the last 3 to 6 months

You might also be offered this third jab if you’ve recently taken high-dose steroids (for example to manage a relapse).

Unfortunately we can't say for sure who'll be offered this third dose. Each person's risk is different, so everyone needs an individual decision.

Your neurologist will give advice about when you should get your third jab. It could depend on how the vaccine might interact with your medications. 

Which vaccine will I get for the third dose?

The JCVI recommends either the Moderna or the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine for this third dose. But if these aren’t available, the Oxford-AstraZeneca jab can be used. 

A third dose of a COVID-19 vaccine doesn’t guarantee everyone who has a weakened immune system will get a good level of protection from the virus. But the JCVI expects many people will increase their immunity. They’ve said that a ‘large minority’ is likely to get this benefit. 

Read the UK government announcement of the third dose COVID-19 vaccine if you were immunosuppressed

4. Can children and teenagers get the COVID-19 vaccine?

On 22 December 2021, government vaccine advisers (the JCVI) recommended the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine for children aged 5 to 11 who are in a “clinical risk group” or who live with someone who’s immunosuppressed. This could include some children with MS.

If all four UK nations agree with the recommendation, we’d expect the NHS to get in touch with anyone eligible in the coming weeks.

Children and teenagers aged 12 to 17 are already offered the vaccine in all UK nations. 

The JCVI also recommends booster jabs for children who are: 

  • 16 and 17 
  • 12 to 15 and are in a clinical risk group or who live with someone who’s immunosuppressed
  • 12 to 15 and are severely immunocompromised and who have had a third primary dose

Read more about how to get the COVID-19 vaccine in your nation

Can children with MS get the COVID-19 vaccine? 

Children over 12 with MS can get the COVID-19 vaccine along with everyone else. Since late December 2021, some 5 to 11-year olds with MS who will also be able to get the vaccine.

The NHS should get in touch in late 2021 or early 2022 with anyone eligible. 

We agree with an MS International Federation recommendation that young people with MS should be offered the vaccine.

Read the MS International Federation information about vaccines for young people with MS

5. Can I have a COVID-19 vaccine if I'm having an MS relapse or take steroids?

Our medical advisers recommend not having the vaccination while you're having a relapse.

They also advise waiting 2 weeks after completing a course of steroids to treat a relapse, before being vaccinated. 

6. Will a COVID-19 vaccine interfere with my other medications?

Our medical advisers say you should wait 2 weeks after completing a course of steroids to treat a relapse, before being vaccinated. 

Our medical advisers don’t think the COVID-19 vaccine will stop DMTs from working. They say this because of what we know about the way these vaccines work, and evidence from studies of other vaccines and MS. At the moment, we’re not sure if a COVID-19 vaccine will interfere with any other medications you might be taking.

No one should stop their MS therapy unless specifically requested to do so by their MS team.

Read our medical advisers' consensus statement

Your MS team can answer specific questions about your own circumstances. 

7. Do I need to prepare anything before my COVID-19 vaccination?

You'll need to bring a face covering, unless you don’t wear one because of your MS or another condition. And if your appointment is at a vaccination centre you’ll need your booking reference numbers. 

You can have someone with you as a carer if you usually would.

When you go for your vaccination, you’ll be asked to read the patient safety leaflet. This is normal for any kind of vaccination.

Read the Astra Zeneca vaccine patient safety leaflet

Read the Pfizer vaccine patient safety leaflet
With some DMTs – though not all – your MS team might have specific advice about the timing of the vaccine. That’s to make the vaccine as effective as possible.

Read our medical advisers' statement about the vaccine and DMTs 

8. What about COVID-19 vaccine side effects? 

Some people report no side effects at all from the COVID-19 vaccines. 

When people do notice something, the most common reactions are headaches, arm pain, body aches, chills or fever lasting a few hours to a few days. Over-the-counter painkillers, like paracetamol, can help with this. 

Some of the possible side effects are similar to MS symptoms, including tiredness and muscle pain. A fever can make your MS symptoms worse temporarily, but they should return to how they were, after the fever is gone. But if you’re worried about any symptoms, you should contact your doctor or MS team as you usually would. 

We know about these possible side effects because thousands of people taking the vaccines were monitored during the clinical trials. And when people report new side effects to a doctor or nurse (or use the Yellow Card scheme) this is recorded and the information about the vaccine is updated. That way, there’s ongoing monitoring for side effects in the months and years after the vaccine is given. 

We also have information from the MS Register, where people with MS have answered questions about vaccine side effects they might have noticed. 

Read more about the MS Register survey of vaccine side effects

Because none of the licensed vaccines are ‘live vaccines’ it’s impossible to catch the coronavirus from the vaccine. 

Oxford-AstraZeneca for the under 40s 

On 7 April, the government vaccine advisers (the JCVI) announced new advice for people aged 18-30 who don’t have an underlying condition (such as MS). On 7 May this was extended to people up to the age of 39. This could include family, partners or carers of people with MS. 

If these people are going for their first jab, they should be offered an alternative to the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine, when possible. 

This is because of extremely rare side effects of blood clots. 

If you’re due for your second Oxford-AstraZeneca jab, the JCVI says you should still have it, even if you’re under 40 and have no underlying conditions. There have been very few cases of blood clots reported after the second jab. 

The chances of having a blood clot after the AstraZeneca vaccine are very small, and a link between the vaccine and the blood clots hasn’t been proven. But they’ve been reported in about 10 people in every 1 million who’ve had this vaccine. 

The JCVI has not given the new advice for people under 40 because they are likely to develop blood clots. They are taking a very cautious approach and weighing up the small risk of blood clots against the benefits of taking the vaccine.

For people with underlying conditions, they say the benefits of the vaccine outweigh the risk.

People under 40 without underlying conditions are less at risk from COVID-19 complications. So the JCVI has decided that at the moment they should be offered an alternative vaccine where possible. 

Read the 7 May announcement from the JCVI

Read more in the Association of British Neurologists (ABN) guidance on COVID-19 vaccines for people with neurological conditions (pdf 648 kB) 

9. Are the coronavirus vaccines ‘live’ vaccines?

The approved Pfizer-BioNTech and Oxford-AstraZeneca coronavirus vaccines are not ‘live’ vaccines. Neither is the third vaccine that’s approved, made by Moderna. 

A ‘live’ vaccine contains a weak version of the virus or bacteria they prevent. Many neurologists would suggest you avoid 'live' vaccines if you’ve recently taken certain DMTs or high-dose steroids. This is because although the virus or bacteria that the vaccine contains is weakened, there is still a small chance that it can cause disease in people with immune systems that have been weakened by DMTs.

The approved vaccines for COVID-19 work in a different way.

10. Which COVID-19 vaccine is best for someone with MS?

It’s too soon to compare the available COVID-19 vaccines and say if one might be better than another for people with MS. 

But the research information we have already confirms that the best way to stay out of hospital with COVID-19 is to get the vaccines now on offer.

Read more in the Association of British Neurologists (ABN) guidance on COVID-19 vaccines for people with neurological conditions (pdf 648 kB) 

11. Can I get the COVID-19 vaccine if I’m pregnant?

The Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation has said that, when it comes to being pregnant, there are no specific safety worries about any of the types of coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccines. Their advice is that pregnant women should be offered the COVID-19 vaccine at the same time as the rest of the population. When they’re offered it will depend on how old they are and what, if any, clinical risk group they are in.

If you’re pregnant, the advice is you should be offered the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccines if these are available. That’s because 90,000 pregnant women in the US have had these two vaccines without any problems. There’s no evidence that other vaccines are unsafe for pregnant women, although more research is needed.

Women should talk to their doctor or nurse about the risks and benefits of vaccination. They’ll know the latest evidence on safety, which vaccines to have, and whether you’re in any special clinical risk group.

Read more on the UK government’s COVID-19 vaccine guidance for pregnant women

12. Why are different COVID-19 vaccines being developed?

Different COVID-19 vaccines are being developed to give us the best chance of finding effective ones. There are lots of ways to make a vaccine for a virus. What they all have in common is getting our immune system ready to fight off the virus. They make sure our system recognises the virus if it gets in.

Researchers from around the world are all working to develop vaccines for COVID-19. And at the start of the race to find it, no-one knew for sure what approach would work best.

There seem to be several different types that work well, and it could mean we have different vaccines for different groups of people. For example, older people’s immune systems might respond best to one, while teenagers find another more effective.

Having lots of different approaches also makes it more likely we’ll find better ways to store and deliver the vaccine. Some need super-cold storage, others can be kept in a household fridge for months on end. The first vaccines to report results – including the approved vaccines – need 2 jabs. It’s possible that others might need only one, or be given as a nasal spray.

13. How do the COVID-19 vaccines work?

The Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine is what’s known as a ‘messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine’. The Moderna vaccine also works in this way. The Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine has a different way of working - it’s known as a ‘viral vector vaccine’.

Messenger RNA - using the genetic code

The messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines don’t contain any pieces of the actual coronavirus. Instead, they contain part of the genetic code of the virus, carried by the mRNA. These vaccines work by injecting this part of the coronavirus's genetic code, which trains the body’s immune system to attack coronavirus if it’s exposed to it.

You can read more about the way these 2 vaccines work on the Pfizer and Moderna websites - the drug companies which have developed them.

The Oxford vaccine – a ‘viral vector vaccine’

The other vaccine has been developed by the University of Oxford and drug company AstraZeneca. It’s known as a ‘viral vector vaccine’. It uses a weak version of the virus that causes the common cold in chimpanzees. This helps it get into the body like an actual virus would. But in the vaccine, this virus has had its genetic code changed so that it can’t actually cause disease in humans.

The change also means it’s got the genetic code for one particular part of the coronavirus - the ‘spike protein’. It’s just that, a spike on the outside of the virus that it uses to get inside our cells.

The vaccine makes the same spike so our immune system can recognise it if the actual coronavirus gets in - and then fight it off.

14. Do any of the COVID-19 vaccines contain egg or animal products?

None of the 3 available COVID-19 vaccines contain egg or animal products. 

The Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine was made using human kidney cells.

15. Have the COVID-19 vaccines been tested on people with MS?

We don’t know yet how many people with MS might have taken the COVID-19 vaccines during the clinical trials. That detail about who was on the trials hasn’t been published yet.

But we do know they looked at whether the vaccines worked on people with certain medical conditions and in older people. They did this because the immune responses for these people can work less effectively and therefore give them less protection through vaccines.

The 3 vaccines which have shared their initial results show the vaccine is between 70-95% effective in people involved in the trial as a whole.

Pfizer-BioNTech plan to check how effective the vaccine is for people with weakened ('compromised') immune systems - for example if you use certain DMTs. They’ll do this through a clinical trial and through their ongoing monitoring of people in the months and years after taking the vaccine.

One small study has looked at how effective the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine might be for people taking cladribine, fingolimod or ocrelizumab. Read about this Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine research

16. How do we know the COVID-19 vaccine will be safe and effective for people with MS?

All new medicines have to go through rigorous safety tests in clinical trials – including vaccines. This includes 3 stages of clinical trials where people who take the vaccine are very closely monitored. Researchers constantly check the safety and side effects through these trials.

Although the trials for the coronavirus vaccines have been accelerated, safety processes have still been carried out as normal.

The process can take up to a few months, but the process has so far been quicker for COVID-19 because the experts are prioritising and checking data as it’s produced - rather than waiting until after everything is completed as they usually would. So they can speed up the process while keeping it thorough.

Any COVID-19 vaccine is only approved once it meets these robust standards of effectiveness, safety and quality.

Association of British Neurologists

The Association of British Neurologists (ABN) say they don’t expect that COVID-19 vaccines will worsen someone’s MS – for example, by causing a relapse. And they have no reason to believe these will be dangerous in people with MS, including people taking immunosuppressive drugs.

We don't know for sure that the vaccines will work for everyone with MS. It’s possible that people on some MS treatments might have a reduced response to the vaccines.

This could happen because vaccines work by triggering an immune response and DMTs work by dampening down the immune system. This effect from the DMT might change over time. So you may have a reduced response for some time after an infusion, for example, but this might not be permanent.

Our medical advisers say that even a reduced response is likely to be better than none, so you should still get vaccinated if you’re on a DMT that might affect the vaccine like this.

Your own MS team can give you more advice, based on your circumstances, any treatments you take, and on whether getting a COVID-19 vaccine is right for you.

The UK government has said that adults who have a weakened immune system ('immunocompromised') should get a COVID-19 vaccine as a matter of priority. They say this includes people having stem cell transplants, and adults receiving alemtuzumab, ofatumumab or rituximab. This doesn’t guarantee the vaccine will be completely effective if you take these treatments, but you will get priority if you and your MS team agree it’s right for you.

One small study has looked at how effective the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine might be for people taking cladribine, fingolimod or ocrelizumab. Read about this Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine research

Now a vaccine has been approved, there will be lots more information coming out about possible side effects and anyone who should avoid or delay taking that particular vaccine. We’ll keep up to date with any changes.

Read our medical advisers’ statement on treatments and COVID-19 vaccines

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